ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON

MAHARISHI'S TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION

AND TM-SIDHI PROGRAM

VOLUME 3

CHALMERS, R. A.; CLEMENTS, G.; SCHENKLUHN, H.; and WEINLESS, M., eds. Scientific research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program: Collected papers, vol. 3. Vlodrop, the Netherlands: MVU Press, 1989.

PART I: PHYSIOLOGY

The Studies in the First Two Sections Document Changes during the Practice of the Transcendental Meditation Technique Unless Otherwise Stated.

A: Metabolic, Biochemical, and Cardiovascular Changes

190. JEVNING, R.; WILSON, A. F.; and DAVIDSON, J. M. Adrenocortical activity during meditation. Hormones and Behavior 10(1): 54-60, 1978.

Reduction in Biochemical Index of Stress: Decreased Plasma Cortisol Levels.

191. JEVNING, R.; WILSON, A. F.; and SMITH, W. R. The Transcendental Meditation technique, adrenocortical activity, and implications for stress. Experientia 34: 618-619, 1978.

Reduction in Biochemical Index of Stress: Decreased Plasma Cortisol Levels.

192. JEVNING, R.; WILSON, A. F.; and VANDER LAAN, E. F. Plasma prolactin and growth hormone during meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine 40(4): 329-333, 1978.

Change in Hormonal Balance: Small Increase in Plasma Prolactin Levels following Transcendental Meditation.

193. BAUHOFER, U. Die kreislaufphysiologischen Auswirkungen bei der Transzendentalen Meditation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, W. Germanv. 1978.

Changes in Cardiac Output and Stroke Volume.

194. JEVNING, R.; WILSON, A. F.; SMITH, W. R.; and MORTON, M. E. Redistribution of blood flow in acute hypometabolic behavior. American Journal of Physiology 235(1): R89-R92, 1978.

Changes in Regional Blood Flow and Cardiac Output Indicative of Increased Blood Flow to the Brain. Reduction in Biochemical Index of Stress: Decreased Arterial Lactate Levels. Indication of Deep Rest: Decreased Respiratory Minute Volume.

195. JEVNING, R., and WILSON, A. F. Behavioral increase of cerebral blood flow. The Physiologist 21: 60 (Abstract), 1978.

Large Increase in Blood Flow to the Brain.

196. ARNHOLD, E.; CHARLES, B. M.; GANDHI, J. S.; BRAGG, M. C.; and RIGBY, B. P. Endocrinological changes following instruction in the TM-Sidhi program. In XIVth International Congress of Internal Medicine Abstracts, Rome, Italy, October 1978, p. 363. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica.

Changes in Hormonal Balance as a Result of the TM-Sidhi Program: Short- and Long-Term Changes in Pituitary Hormone Levels Indicative of Increased Sensitivity in Endocrine Control Systems.

197. SEVEREIDE, C. J. Physiological and phenomenological aspects of Transcendental Meditation. Master's thesis (abbr.), Department of Psychology, University of Trondheim, Trondheim, Norway, 1979.

Experience of Pure Consciousness Associated with: Marked Reductions in Respiration and Heart Rates; Periodic Breath Suspension; Absence of Spontaneous Skin Resistance Responses. Maintenance of Relaxed Style of Physiological Functioning Outside of Meditation: Fewer Spontaneous Skin Resistance Responses.

198. LANG, R.; DEHOF, K.; MEURER, K. A.; and KAUFMANN, W. Sympathetic activity and Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Neural Transmission 44: 117-135, 1979.

Integration of Opposite Styles of Physiological Functioning: Simultaneous Increased Activity of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Branches of Autonomic Nervous System.

199. BEVAN, A. J. W.; SYMONS, R. G.; BENG, C. G.; and WELLBY, M. L. Short-term endocrine changes in Transcendental Meditation. Proceedings of the Endocrine Society of Australia 2 (Abstract 56), 1979.

Changes in Hormonal Balance: Decreased Serum Growth Hormone Levels.

200. BEVAN, A. J. W. Endocrine changes in Transcendental Meditation. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 7: 75-76 (Abstract), 1980.

Biochemical Indications of Reduced Stress: Decreased Serum Growth Hormone Levels; Decreased Serum Cortisol Levels; Decreased Serum Triiodothyronine Levels.

201. ROBERTSON, D. W., and PETERSON, J. W. Change in cardiac output during Transcendental Meditation as measured by noninvasive impedance plethysmography. Departments of Physical Education and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, U.S.A., 1980.

Changes in Cardiac Output and Stroke Volume.

202. SUBRAHMANYAM, S., and PORKODI, K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1: 73-88, 1980.

Changes in Biochemical and Hormonal Balance outside the Practice of Transcendental Meditation: Decreased Levels of Catecholamine and Steroid Metabolites; Decreased Plasma Cortisol Levels. Improved Cardiovascular Health: Decreased Serum Cholesterol Levels. Benefits for Patients with Aggressive Behavior, Mental Retardation, and Epilepsy: Normalization of Neurotransmitter Metabolite Levels, Plasma Cortisol Levels, and EEG Features; Decreased Aggression in Aggressive Patients; Improved IQ and Cognitive Functioning in Mentally Retarded Subjects; Reduction of Frequency and Severity of Epileptic Seizures in Epileptic Patients.

203. JEVNING, R.; WILSON, A. F.; and PIRKLE, H. C. Behavioral control of red blood cell metabolism. Departments of Medicine, Physiology, and Pathology, University of California at Irvine, Orange, California, U.S.A., 1981.

Fundamental Change in Cellular Metabolism: Reduced Glucose Metabolism in Red Blood Cells.

204. WALTON, K. G.; LEROM, M.; SALERNO, J.; and WALLACE, R. K. Practice of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi program may affect the circadian rhythm of urinary 5-hydroxyindole excretion. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 7: 48, 1981.

Changes in Serotonergic Activity: Increased Urinary 5-Hydroxyindole Excretion.

205. FARROW, J. T., and, Hebert J. R. Breath suspension during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Psychosomatic Medicine 44(2):133-153, 1982.

Experience of Pure Consciousness Associated with: Periodic Breath Suspension; Marked Reductions in Metabolic Rate (Oxygen Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Elimination), Mean Respiration Rate, and Minute Ventilation Rate; Reduced Heart Rate; Increased Basal Skin Resistance; Stable Phasic Skin Resistance; Increased EEG Coherence in Theta, Alpha and Beta Bands.

206. WERNER, O.; WALLACE, R. K.; CHARLES, B.; JANSSEN, G.; and CHALMERS, R. Endocrine balance and the TM-Sidhi program. Maharishi European Research University, Seelisberg, Switzerland, and Department of Biology, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1982.

Changes in Hormonal Balance as a Result of the TM-Sidhi Program: Short- and Long-Term Changes in Pituitary Hormone Levels Indicative of Increased Stability and Sensitivity in Endocrine Control Systems.

207. JEVNING, R.; WILSON, A. F.; and O'HALLORAN, J. P. Muscle and skin blood flow and metabolism during states of decreased activation. Physiology & Behavior 29(2): 343-348, 1982.

Indication of Deep Rest: Decreased Oxygen Consumption in Muscle Tissue.

208. O'HALLORAN, J. P.; JEVNING, R. A.; WILSON, A. F.; SKOWSKY, R.; and ALEXANDER, C. N. Behaviorally induced secretion of arginine vasopressin. Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of California at Irvine, Orange, California, U.S.A.; Department of Endocrinology, Long Beach Veteran's Administration Hospital, Long Beach, California, U.S.A.; and Department of Psychology and Social Relations, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 1983.

Changes in Hormonal Balance: Increased Plasma Vasopressin Levels at Regular Twice Daily Practice of Transcendental Meditation. Indication of Deep Rest: Increased Basal Skin Resistance. Lower State and Trait Anxiety.

B: Electrophysiological and Electroencephalographic Changes

209. KEMMERLING, T. Wirkung der Transzendentalen Meditation auf den Muskeltonus. Psychopathometrie 4: 437-438, 1978.

Electromyographic Evidence of Deep Muscular Relaxation.

210. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W. EEG coherence and the TM-Sidhi program. Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A. Abstract presented at the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 28 August 1978.

Increased Orderliness and Integration of Brain Functioning as a Result of the TM-Sidhi Program: Longitudinal Increases in Interhemispheric EEG Coherence.

211. ROUZERÉ, A.-M.; BADAWI, K.; and HARTMANN, R. High amplitude fronto-central alpha and theta activity during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Department of Neurophysiology, Maharishi European Research University, Seelisberg, Switzerland, 1979.

Increased Orderliness and Integration of Brain Functioning: Bursts of High Amplitude EEG Alpha and Theta Activity in Frontal and Central Regions.

212. CHENARD, J.-R. A controlled study of the influence of Transcendental Meditation on a specific value of the H-reflex (Hoffman reflex) recruitment curve and the surface EMG. Centre d'études universitaires dans l'Ouest Québécois, University of Quebec, Rouyn, Quebec, Canada, 1979.

Electromyographic Evidence of Deep Muscular Relaxation; Reduction in Amplitude of H-Reflex .

213. BADAWI, K.; WALLACE, R. K.; ORME-JOHNSON, D.; and ROUZERÉ, A.-M. Electrophysiologic characteristics of respiratory suspension periods occurring during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 46(3): 267-276, 1984.

Experience of Pure Consciousness Associated with Periodic Breath Suspension and High EEG Coherence.

214. MCEVOY, T. M.; FRUMKlN, L. R.; and HARKINS, S. W. Effects of meditation on brainstem auditory evoked potentials. International Journal of Neuroscience 10: 165-170, 1980.

Changes in Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials following the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program Suggesting Improved Processing of Auditory Information.

215. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; WALLACE, R. K.; and DILLBECK, M. C. Longitudinal effects of the TM-Sidhi program on EEG phase coherence. Departments of Psychology and Biology, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1980.

Increased Orderliness and Integration of Brain Functioning as a Result of the TM-Sidhi Program: Longitudinal Increases in EEG Alpha and Theta Coherence.

216. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W., and HAYNES, C. T. EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM-Sidhi experiences. International Journal of Neuroscience 13: 211-217, 1981.

Clear Experiences of Pure Consciousness and TM-Sidhis Correlated with Higher Frontal EEG Alpha Coherence and Greater Creativity.

217. DILLBECK, M. C., and BRONSON, E. C. Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 14: 147-151, 1981.

Increased Orderliness and Integration of Brain Functioning: Longitudinal Increase in Frontal EEG Alpha Coherence.

218. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W. Does the nervous system have a ground state? A description of high EEG coherence events in a single subject. Department of Psychology, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1981.

Experience of Pure Consciousness Associated with Overall High EEG Coherence.

219. DILLBECK, M. C.; ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; and WALLACE, R. K. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 15: 151-157, 1981.

Improved Efficiency of Concept Learning as a Result of the TM-Sidhi Program; Correlations between High Frontal EEG Alpha and Theta Coherence, Greater Neurological Efficiency (Faster H-Reflex Recovery), and Greater Flexibility of Concept Learning.

220. ALEXANDER, C. N., and LARIMORE, W. E. Distinguishing between Transcendental Meditation and sleep according to electrophysiological criteria. Department of Psychology and Social Relations, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., and The Analytic Sciences Corporation, Reading, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 1981.

EEG Differentiation between Transcendental Meditation and Napping.

221. NIDICH, S. I.; ABRAMS, A.; JONES, C.; ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; and WALLACE, R. K. Neurophysiological entry characteristics: Correlation between EEG coherence and math achievement with subjects practicing the TM program. Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1981.

High Frontal EEG Alpha Coherence Correlated with Superior Performance in Mathematics.

222. ORME-JOHNSON, D.W.; DILLBECK, M. C.; WALLACE, R. K.; and LANDRITH III, G. S. Intersubject EEG coherence: Is consciousness a field? International Journal of Neuroscience 16: 203-209, 1982.

Physiological Correlate of Increased Coherence in Collective Consciousness: Increased Intersubject EEG Coherence Due to Long-Range Influence of Group Practice of the TM-Sidhi Program.

223. NIDICH, S. I.; RYNCARZ, R. A.; ABRAMS, A. I.; ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; and WALLACE, R. K. Kohlbergian cosmic perspective responses, EEG coherence, and the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Moral Education 12(3): 166-173, 1983.

High Frontal Alpha EEG Coherence Correlated with High Levels of Principled Moral Reasoning and Unified Cosmic Perspective on Life.

224. BERESFORD, M., and CLEMENTS, G. Real time EEG coherence analysis of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Department of Neurophysiology, MERU Research Institute, Mentmore, Buckinghamshire, England, 1983.

Increased Orderliness and Integration of Brain Functioning: Increased EEG Coherence in Alpha, Theta, and Beta Bands; Further Increases during the TM-Sidhi Program.

225. BERESFORD, M.; JEDRCZAK, A.; TOOMEY, M.; and CLEMENTS, G. EEG coherence, age-related psychological variables, and the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Departments of Neurophysiology and Psychology, MERU Research Institute, Mentmore, Buckinghamshire, England, 1983.

Correlations between High EEG Coherence and Superior Performance on Age-Related Psychological Variables: Fluency; Motor Speed; Reaction Time; Shape Memory; Flexibility. Length of Time Practicing TM-Sidhi Program Predictive of Higher Mean Right Alpha Coherence.

The Studies in the Following Sections Document Changes outside the Practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program.

C: Physiological Efficiency and Stability

226. MILLS, P. J., and WALLACE, R. K. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on the paired Hoffman reflex. Department of Biology, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1978.

Enhanced Neurological Efficiency as a Result of the TM-Sidhi Program: Facilitation of the Paired H-Reflex.

227. WARSHAL, D. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on normal and Jendrassik reflex time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 50: 1103-1106, 1980.

Enhanced Neuromuscular Efficiency: Decreased Reflex Latency and Reflex Motor Time.

228. MILLS, W. W., and FARROW, J. T. The Transcendental Meditation technique and acute experimental pain. Psychosomatic Medicine 43(2): 157-164, 1981.

Reduced Pain-Related Distress.

229. WALLACE, R. K.; MILLS, P. J.; ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; DILLBECK, M. C.; and JACOBE, E. Modification of the paired H reflex through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Experimental Neurology 79: 77-86, 1983.

Enhanced Neurological Efficiency as a Result of the TM-Sidhi Program: Facilitation of the Paired H-Reflex.

230. WALLACE, R. K.; MILLS, P. J.; ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; DILLBECK, M. C.; and JACOBE, E. The paired H reflex and its correlation with EEG coherence and academic performance in normal subjects practicing meditation. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 8: 537, 1982.

Correlations between High EEG Coherence, Enhanced Neurological Efficiency (Paired H-Reflex Recovery), and Superior Academic Performance.

231. WALLACE, R. K.; ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; MILLS, P. J.; DILLBECK, M. C.; and JACOBE, E. The relationship between the paired Hoffman reflex and academic achievement in participants of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program. Departments of Biology and Psychology, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1980.

Enhanced Neurological Efficiency (Paired H-Reflex Recovery) Correlated with Superior Academic Performance.

D: Health

232. GRÄF, D., and PFISTERER, G. Der Nutzen der Technik der Transzendentalen Meditation für die ärztliche Praxis. Erfahrungsheilkunde 9: 594-596, 1978.

Case History of Benefits for Patient Recovering from Severe Illness, Including Severe Bronchial Asthma and Heart Disease.

233. COOPER, M. J., and AYGEN, M. M. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Findings previously published in Harefuah, the Journal of the Israel Medical Association, 95(1): 1-2, 1978.

Improved Cardiovascular Health: Decreased Serum Cholesterol Levels in Normal and Hypercholesterolaemic Patients; Reduction of Blood Pressure to More Ideal Levels in Normotensive Subjects.

234. HEIDELBERG, R. Transzendentale Meditation in der geburtshilflichen Psychoprophylaxe. Doctoral dissertation (abbr.), Medical Faculty, Free University of Berlin, West Berlin, W. Germany, 1979.

Better Health for Mother and Child during Pregnancy and Childbirth: Fewer Medical Complaints during Pregnancy; Less Pain and Anxiety during Pregnancy and Childbirth; Shorter Duration of Labour; Lower Frequency of Vacuum or Forceps Delivery and Other Operative Interventions during Labour; Greater Frequency and Longer Duration of Breast-Feeding.

235. AGARWAL, B. L., and KHARBANDA, A. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on mild and moderate hypertension. Postgraduate Department of Medicine, M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Paper presented at the VIIth Asian-Pacific Congress on Cardiology, Bangkok, Thailand, November 1979.

Improved Cardiovascular Health: Decreased Blood Pressure in Patients with Mild and Moderate Hypertension.

236. COOPER, M. J., and AYGEN, M. M. Transcendental Meditation in the management of hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Human Stress 5(4): 24-27, 1979.

Improved Cardiovascular Health: Long-Term Reductions in Serum Cholesterol in Hypercholesterolaemic Patients.

237. SEILER, G., and SEILER, V. The effects of Transcendental Meditation on periodontal tissue. Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine 26(1): 8-12, 1979.

Better Periodontal Health.

238. KIRTANE, L. Transcendental Meditation: A multipurpose tool in clinical practice. General medical practice, Poona, Maharashtra, India, 1980.

Benefits in General Medical Practice: Improvements in General Health and in a Wide Variety of Physical and Mental Disorders Including Hypertension; Angina Pectoris; Bronchial Asthma; Chronic Bronchitis; Diabetes Mellitus; Menorrhagia; Periodontal Inflammation; Recurrent Upper Respiratory Infections; Allergic Rhinitis; Chronic Back Pain; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Dyspepsia; Chronic Colitis; Insomnia; Chronic Headaches; Anxiety; Depression; Fatigue; Obesity. Decreased Need for Tranquilizers, Sleep Medications, Anti-Asthmatics, Anti-Hypertensives, and Drugs for Hypertension, Asthma, and Heart Disease. Increased Cooperation with Medical Advice. Recovery from Major Illness, Chronic Musculo-Skeletal Complaints.

239. FARINELLI, L. Possibilità di applicazioni della tecnologia della coscienza in aspetti di medicina preventiva: Una ricerca pilota. Unpublished doctoral dissertation (abbr.), Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Padova at Verona, Verona, Italy, 1981.

Multiple Improvements in Physical and Mental Health: Fewer Infectious Diseases; Better Health of the Respiratory and Digestive Systems; Less Eczema and Fewer Allergic Reactions; Less Depression; Greater Self-Actualization; Greater Self-Esteem; Better Social Relationships; Less Nervousness; Less Insomnia; Lower Use of Tranquilizers, Sleep Medication, and Analgesics; Fewer Accidents; Lower Usage of Cigarettes, Alcohol, Non-Prescribed Drugs, and Coffee.

240. YEE, A. C., and DISSANAYAKE, A. S. Glucose tolerance and the Transcendental Meditation program (a pilot study). MERU Research Institute, Singapore, and Department of Physiology, University of Singapore, Singapore. Paper presented at the International Congress on Research on Higher States of Consciousness at the Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, 4-6 December 1980.

Improved Blood Sugar Homeostasis as Measured by Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

241. OVERBECK, K.-D. Auswirkungen der Technik der Transzendentalen Meditation (TM) auf die psychische und psychosomatische Befindlichkeit. Psychotherapie-Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie 32(6): 188-192, 1982.

Decreased Psychosomatic Complaints; Decreased Musculo-skeletal Complaints; Decreased Limitations Caused by Physical and General Ailments; Increased Efficiency; Increased Emotional Stability; Decreased Use of Medicines and Non-Prescribed Drugs; Decreased Over-Sensitivity.

242. WALLACE, R. K.; DILLBECK, M.; JACOBE, E.; and HARRINGTON, B. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on the aging process. International Journal of Neuroscience 16: 53-58, 1982.

Reversal of Biological Aging: Younger Biological Age Compared with Control Subjects and Population Norms. Length of Time Practicing Transcendental Meditation Associated with Reduction in Biological Age.

243. LOVELL-SMlTH, H. D. Transcendental Meditation--treating the patient as well as the disease. The New Zealand Family Physician 9: 62-65, April 1982.

Case History Illustrating Holistic Improvements in Physical and Mental Health Including Relief from Insomnia; Decreased Anxiety; Decreased Need for Tranquillizers; Fewer Headaches; Increased Enjoyment of Life, and Increased Efficiency.

244. WALLACE, R. K.; SILVER, J.; MILLS, P. J.; DILLBECK, M. C.; and WAGONER, D. E. Systolic blood pressure and long-term practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program: Effects of TM on systolic blood pressure. Psychosomatic Medicine 45(1): 41-46, 1983.

Improved Cardiovascular Health: Lower Systolic Blood Pressure Compared to Norms for Age; Effect More Pronounced in Long-Term Meditators.

245. TOOMEY, M.; PENNINGTON, B.; CHALMERS, R.; and CLEMENTS, G. The practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program reverses the physiological ageing process. MERU Research Institute, Mentmore, Buckinghamshire, England, and Department of Biology, University of York, Yorkshire, England, 1982.

Reversal of Biological Aging: Younger Biological Age Compared with Norms. Length of Time Practicing Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program Correlated with Younger Biological Age and Younger Functional Age, and Predictive of Lower Systolic Blood Pressure and Auditory Threshold.

246. TOOMEY, M.; CHALMERS, R.; and CLEMENTS, G. The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and reversal of the ageing process: A longitudinal study. MERU Research Institute, Mentmore, Buckinghamshire, England, 1983.

Reversal of Biological Aging: Longitudinal Reduction in Biological Age; Younger Biological Age Compared with Norms. Length of Time Practicing Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program Correlated with Younger Biological Age and Younger Functional Age. Decreased Systolic Blood Pressure and Improved Auditory Threshold.

247. BROWNE, G. E.; FOUGÉRE, D.; ROXBURGH, A.; BIRD, J.; and LOVELL-SMITH, H. D. Improved mental and physical health and decreased use of prescribed and non-prescribed drugs through the Transcendental Meditation program. Age of Enlightenment Medical Council, Christchurch, New Zealand; Heylen Research Centre, Auckland, New Zealand; and Dunedin Hospital, Dunedin, New Zealand, 1983.

Improvements in Physical and Mental Health Correlated with Duration and Regularity of Practice of Transcendental Meditation; Decreased Use of Alcohol; Decreased Use of Cigarettes; Decreased Drug Abuse; Decreased Need for Anti-Hypertensives, Drugs for Heart Disease, Sleep Medications, Tranquilizers, Anti-Depressants, Anti-Asthmatics, Anti-Histamines, Analgesics, and Drugs for Hypertension, Asthma, and Heart Disease.

E: Motor and Perceptual Ability

248. HOLT, W. R.; CARUSO, J. L.; and RILEY, J. B. Transcendental Meditation vs. pseudo-meditation on visual choice reaction time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 46: 726, 1978.

Improved Mind-Body Coordination: Faster Reactions (Visual Choice Reaction Time).

249. FRIEND, K. E., and MALISZEWSKI, M. More on the reliability of the kinesthetic after-effects measure and need for stimulation. Journal of Personality Assessment 42(4): 385-391, 1978.

Reduced Need for External Stimulation.

250. ANTES, M. The effects of the TM-Sidhi program on rigidity-flexibility. Diplomarbeit (abbr.), Department of Psychology, University of Saarland, Saarbrücken, W. Germany, 1978.

Increased Behavioral Flexibility as a Result of the TM-Sidhi Program: Increased Perceptual Flexibility; Increased Psychomotor Speed; Increased Functional Efficiency of Psychomotor Co-ordination.

251. BANQUET, J. P., and LESEVRE, N. Event-related potentials in altered states of consciousness. Motivation, Motor and Sensory Processes of the Brain, Progress in Brain Research 54: 447-453, 1980.

Increased Vigilance and Improved Capacity for Selective Attention: Faster Reactions with Fewer Mistakes (Visual Choice Reaction Time); Shorter Latency and Larger Amplitude of Visual Evoked Potentials.

252. SCHWARTZ, E. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on strength of the nervous system, perceptual reactance, reaction time, and auditory threshold. Master's thesis (abstract), Department of Exercise Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 1979.

Increased Sensitivity, Strength, and Flexibility of the Nervous System; Improved Auditory Thresholds; Faster Reactions.

253. DILLBECK, M. C. Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem solving. Memory and Cognition 10(3): 207-215, 1982.

Improved Efficiency of Visual Perception; Increased Freedom from Habitual Patterns of Perception with Increased Ability to Use Such Patterns Effectively Where Appropriate.

254. ROWE, K. C.; NEUSCHATZ, J. S.; and NIDICH, S. I. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on reaction time. State University of New York at New Paltz, New Paltz, New York, U.S.A.; Roger Williams College, Bristol, Rhode Island, U.S.A.; and Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, September 1980.

Improved Mind-Body Coordination: Faster Reactions (Visual Choice Reaction Time).

255. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; RAIMONDI, D.; VESELEY, B.; DILLBECK, M. C.; and WALLACE, R. K. The influence of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on field independence: The growth of a stable internal frame of reference. Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1981.

More Stable Internal Frame of Reference: Greater Field Independence.

256. HARDING, S. D. The effects of Transcendental Meditation on an auditory temporal discrimination task. Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, Sussex, England, 1981.

Improved Auditory Temporal Discrimination.

257. JEDRCZAK, A. The TM-Sidhi program and age-related psychological variables. Department of Psychology, MERU Research Institute, Mentmore, Buckinghamshire, England, 1982.

Length of Time Practicing TM-Sidhi Program Predictive of Superior Performance on Tests Measuring Age-Related Psychological Variables: Visual Memory; Creativity; Field Independence; Perceptual Speed; Motor Speed; Reaction Time; Non-Verbal Intelligence. Length of Time Practicing the TM-Sidhi Program Predictive of Younger Functional Age.

258. JEDRCZAK, A. Psychological correlates of experiences of higher states of consciousness in subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Department of Psychology, MERU Research Institute, Mentmore, Buckinghamshire, England, 1982.

Experience of Higher States of Consciousness Positively Correlated with Superior Performance on Tests Measuring Perceptual Speed, Flexibility, Creativity, Intelligence, Field Independence, and Psycho-Motor Speed.

259. JEDRCZAK, A. The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and field independence. Findings published in Perceptual and Motor Skills 59: 999-100, 1984.

More Stable Internal Frame of Reference: Greater Field Independence.

PART II: PSYCHOLOGY

A: Intelligence, Learning, and Academic Performance

260. TRAVIS, F. Creative thinking and the Transcendental Meditation technique. A version printed in The Journal of Creative Behavior 13(3): 169-180, 1979.

Increased Creativity: Increased Figural Flexibility and Originality; Increased Verbal Fluency.

261. ARON, A.; ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; and BRUBAKER, P. The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum: A 4-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning. College Student Journal 15(2): 140-146, 1981.

Benefits for Students at Maharishi International University: Increased Intelligence; Increased Self-Confidence; Increased Sociability; Improved Psychological Health; Increased Social Maturity.

262. WOOD, M. F. The effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation as a means of improving the echolalic behavior of an autistic student. College of Exceptional Child Education, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Autism Research, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 14 July 1981.

Improved Echolalic Behavior in Autistic Student.

263. EYERMAN, J. Transcendental Meditation and mental retardation. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 42(1): 35-36, 1981.

Improved Speech, Social Behavior, Intelligence, and Physiological Functioning in a Mentally Retarded Subject

264. DILLBECK, M. C., and SZAL, T. J. The Transcendental Meditation technique, working memory, and field independence in school-aged children. Department of Psychology, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1981.

Improved Working Memory in School Children.

265. KOTCHABHAKDI, N. J.; PIPATVERAVAT, S.; KOTCHABHAKDI, N.; TAPANYA, P.; and PORNPATHKUL, S. Improvement of intelligence, learning ability and moral judgment through the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. In Proceedings of the Second Asian Workshop on Child and Adolescent Development, Bangkok and Bangsaen, Thailand, 15-24 February 1982. Bangkok: Sri Nakharinwirot University.

Benefits for High School Students: Increased Intelligence Growth Rate; Improved Learning Ability; Improved Moral Judgement.

B: Development of Personality

266. HANLEY, C. P., and SPATES, J. L. Transcendental Meditation and social psychological attitudes. The Journal of Psychology 99: 121-127, 1978.

More Positive Conception of Human Nature; More Positive Self-lmage; Higher Levels of Tolerance; Greater Sociability; Less Pronounced Feelings of Social Inadequacy.

267. LJUNGGREN, G. Inflytandet av Transcendental Meditation pa neuroticism, medicinbruk och sömnproblem. Läkartidningen 74(47): 4212-4214, 1977.

Decreased Neuroticism; Decreased Insomnia; Decreased Use of Tranquilizers.

268. HANDMACHER, B. H. Length of time spent in the practice of Transcendental Meditation and sex differences related to intrapersonal and interpersonal orientation. Doctoral thesis (abbr.), College of Education and Departments of Psychology and Sociology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A., 1978. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39: 676A.

Less Anxiety; Less Depression; More Affectionate: More Tolerant; Less Tendency to Dominate; Less Interested in Superficial Social Contacts; More Selective in Personal Relationships; Less Need for Acceptance; More Inner-Directed.

269. SANDAHL, F. P. The effect of the practice of TM on the degree of neuroticism as measured by the defense mechanism test. National Defense Research Institute, Karlstad, Sweden, 1978.

Decreased Hidden Mental Turbulence: Decreased Neuroticism.

270. NIDICH, S. I., and NIDICH, R. The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and moral development. Department of Education, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1983.

Enhanced Cognitive-Moral Development; Benefits of Transcendental Meditation Further Enhanced by the TM-Sidhi Program.

271. HOLEMAN, R., and SEILER, G. Effects of sensitivity training and Transcendental Meditation on perception of others. Perceptual and Motor Skills 49: 270, 1979.

Improved Perception of Others.

272. FERGUSON, P. C. An integrative meta-analysis of psychological studies investigating the treatment outcomes of meditation techniques. Doctoral thesis (abbr.), School of Education, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A., 1981.

Greater Beneficial Effect from Transcendental Meditation than from Other Meditation and Relaxation Procedures as Indicated by Meta-Analysis.

273. KNIFFKI, C. Transcendental Meditation and autogenic training: A comparison. Transzendentale Meditation und Autogenes Training--Ein Vergleich in the series 'Geist und Psyche'. Munich: Kindler Verlag, 1979.

Cumulative Benefits for Psychological Health: Decreased Nervousness; Decreased Depression; Decreased Emotional Instability; Decreased Manifest Anxiety.

274. TURNBULL, M. J., and NORRIS, H. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on self-identity indices and personality. British Journal of Psychology 73: 57-68, 1982.

Stronger Self-ldentity.

275. NIDICH, S. I. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on state-trait anxiety. Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1982.

Decreased State and Trait Anxiety.

PART III: SOCIOLOGY

A: Rehabilitation

276. SHAFII, M.; LAVELY, R.; and JAFFE, R. Decrease in cigarette smoking following Transcendental Meditation. University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A. Findings previously published in MERU Journal 24: 29 (Abstract), 1976.

Decreased or Discontinued Use of Cigarettes.

277. GEISLER, M. Therapeutische Wirkungen der Transzendentalen Meditation auf Drogenkonsumenten. Zeitschrift für klinische Psychologie 7(4): 235-255, 1978.

Decreased Drug Abuse; Decreased Nervousness (Decreased Psychosomatic Disturbance)4; Decreased Depression (Increased Contentment, Increased Self-Confidence); Increased Sociability (Increased Friendliness, Increased Liveliness); Increased Placidity (Increased Self-Assuredness, Increased Good Humor, Decreased Tendency to Procrastinate); Decreased Inhibition (Increases in: Naturalness, Spontaneity, Self-Sufficiency); Increased Extroversion (Increased Capacity for Warm Interpersonal Relationships); Decreased Neuroticism (Increased Emotional Stability, Decreased Tension); Increased Self-Reliance (Increased Effectiveness, More Balanced Mood, Increased Vigor).

278. ABRAMS, A. I., and SIEGEL, L. M. The Transcendental Meditation program and rehabilitation at Folsom State Prison: A cross-validation study. Criminal Justice and Behavior 5 (1): 3-20, 1978.

Rehabilitation of Prisoners: Decreased Anxiety; Decreased Neuroticism, Decreased Resentment; Decreased Negativism; Decreased Irritability; Decreased Hostility; Decreased Prison Disciplinary Rule Infractions; Improved Sleep Patterns (Decreased Time to Fall Asleep, Decreased Awakenings per Night, Improved Quality of Sleep).

279. ABRAMS, A. I., and SIEGEL, L. M. Transcendental Meditation and rehabilitation at Folsom Prison: Response to a critique. Criminal Justice and Behavior 6(1): 13-21, 1979.

Verification of Results of Paper 278.

280. ABRAMS, A. I. A follow-up study of the effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on inmates at Folsom Prison. Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1982.

Rehabilitation of Prisoners: Sustained Reductions in Neuroticism, Anxiety, Hostility, and Use of Cigarettes; Improved Sleep Patterns (Decreased Time to Fall Asleep, Decreased Awakenings per Night).

281. CARTER, R., and MEYER, J. E. The use of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique with severely disturbed psychiatric inpatients. Institute for Social Rehabilitation, Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., 1979.

Benefits for Psychiatric In-Patients: Marked Improvements in Schizophrenia, Manic-Depressive Psychosis, and Severe Personality Disorders; Decreased Anxiety and Tension.

282. NIDICH, S. I. The Science of Creative Intelligence and the Transcendental Meditation program: Reduction of drug and alcohol consumption. Department of Education, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A. Paper presented at the New England Educational Research Organization Conference, Lenox, Massachusetts, U.S.A., May 1980.

Decreased Use of Alcohol; Decreased Drug Abuse.

283. BIELEFELD, M. Transcendental Meditation: A stress reducing self-help support system. In Vocational rehabilitation: Do psychologists really belong? Cleveland V.A. Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., 24 August 1981.

Benefits for Patients with Psychiatric and Addictive Disorders in a Vocational Rehabilitation Unit: Greater Ability to Maintain Employment on Discharge; More Frequently Maintained on Out-Patient Care Alone.

284. ALEXANDER, C. N., and MARKS, E. J. Ego development, personality and behavioral change in inmates practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique or participating in other programs: A summary of cross-sectional and longitudinal results. Doctoral thesis of first author (summary), Department of Psychology and Social Relations, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 1982.

Rehabilitation of Prisoners: Greater Self-Development, Capacity for Warm Interpersonal Relationships, and Engagement in Private, Avocational Businesses; Lower Pathological Symptoms--Lower Psychopathic Deviation, Anxiety, Aggression, Tension, and Introversion; Growth toward Higher States of Consciousness; Longitudinal Increases in Self-Development and Decreases in Aggression, Anxiety, and Schizophrenic Symptoms.

285. ALEXANDER, C. N.; GRANT, J.; and STADTE, C. VON. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on recidivism: A retrospective archival analysis. Doctoral thesis of first author (summary), Department of Psychology and Social Relations, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 1982. Dissertation Abstracts International 43 (1982): 539B.

Rehabilitation of Prisoners: Lower Recidivism Rate; Fewer New Convictions.

286. BLEICK, C. R. Influence of the Transcendental Meditation program on criminal recidivism. Institute for Social Rehabilitation, Berkeley, California, U.S.A., 1982.

Rehabilitation of Prisoners: Lower Recidivism Rate; Higher Incidence of Clean Records; Fewer New Convictions.

287. ARON, E. N., and ARON, A. The patterns of reduction of drug and alcohol use among Transcendental Meditation participants. Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 2(1): 28-33, 1983.

Decreased Use of Tobacco; Decreased Use of Alcohol; Decreased Use of Marijuana.

288. ARON, A., and ARON, E. N. Rehabilitation of juvenile offenders through the Transcendental Meditation program: A controlled study. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society of Police and Criminal Psychology, Nashville, Tennessee, October 28, 1982.

Rehabilitation of Juvenile Offenders: Decreased Anxiety.

PART IV: REVIEW PAPERS

A: Health

289. CLEMENTS, G., and CLEMENTS, D. M. The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and the reversal of ageing. Maharishi European Research University, Seelisberg, Switzerland. Rheinweiler, W. Germany: MERU Press, 1980.

Research findings on the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program are reviewed in the context of current knowledge of the aging process and the usual physiological and psychological changes associated with aging.

290. BAUHOFER, U. Das Programm der Transzendentalen Meditation in der Behandlung von Adipositas. Maharishi European Research University, Seelisberg, Switzerland, 1983.

Treatment of Obesity: More Successful Weight Reduction; Improved Psychological Health in Obese Subjects--Decreased Anxiety; Decreased Nervousness (Decreased Psychosomatic Disturbance); Decreased Aggressiveness (Increased Self-Control, Increased Emotional Maturity); Decreased Depression (Increased Contentment, Increased Self-Confidence); Increased Sociability (Increased Friendliness, Increased Liveliness); lncreased Placidity (Increased Self-Assuredness, Increased Good Humor); Decreased Tendency to Dominate (Increased Respectfulness); Decreased Inhibition (Increases in Naturalness, Spontaneity, Self-Sufficiency); Increased Extroversion (Increased Capacity for Warm Interpersonal Relationships); Decreased Neuroticism (Increased Emotional Stability).