Recent Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi™ Program


The Studies in the First Two Sections Document Changes during the Practice of the Transcendental Meditation Technique Unless Otherwise Stated.

A: Metabolic, Biochemical, and Cardiovascular Changes

431. GLASER, J. L.; BRIND, J. L.; VOGELMAN, J. H.; EISNER , M. J.; DILLBECK, M. C.; WALLACE, R. K.; and ORENTREICH, N. Elevated serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi Program. A version of this paper was published in Journal of Behavioral Medicine 15(4): 327-341, 1992.

Indications of Younger Biological Age: Increased DHEAS Levels in Female and Older Male Practitioners of the TM and TM-Sidhi program.

432. PUGH, N. D.; WALTON, K. G.; and CAVANAUGH, K. L. Can time series analysis of serotonin turnover test the theory that consciousness is a field? Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 14: 372, 1988.

Increased Serotonin Turnover Correlated with Group Size of TM-Sidhi Participants.

433. HILL, D. A. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, autonomic balance and serotonergic activity in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation. Doctoral dissertation, Maharishi International University, U.S.A. Dissertation Abstracts International 50(8): 3330-B, 1989.

Decreased Sensitivity to Stress Hormones; Increased Autonomic Balance; More Stable Balance of the Physiology.

434. WALTON, K. G.; BROWN, G. M.; PUGH , N.; MACLEAN C.; and GELDER-LOOS, P. Indole-mediated adaptation: Does melatonin mediate resistance to stress in humans? Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 16: 273, 1990.

Decreased Melatonin Turnover; Decreased State-Trait Anxiety.

435. WALTON, K. G.; GELDERLOOS, P.; PUGH, N.; MACRAE, P. ; GODDARD, P.; MACLEAN, C.; and LEVITSKY, D. Stress and serotonin turnover in normal subjects: relation to serotonin deficiencies in mental disorders. Abstract presented at the 5th International Congress of Psychophysiology, Budapest, Hungary, 9-13 July, 1990.

Increased Whole Body Serotonin Metabolism; Reduced Mood Disturbance.

436. MACLEAN, C. R. K.; WALTON, K. G.; WENNEBERG, S. R.; LEVITSKY, D. K.; WAZIRI, R.; and SCHNEIDER, R. H. Alterations in Plasma Serotonin Reactivity to Laboratory Stress after Four Months Practice of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program. Presented at the Second International Symposium on Serotonin from All Biology and Pharmacology Therapeutics. Houston, TX, September, 1992.

Decreased Baseline Plasma Serotonin Relative to Controls. (In contrast to whole body serotonin metabolism, low plasma serotonin indicates deceased stress and decreased risk of high blood pressure.)

437. MACLEAN, C. R. K.; WALTON, K. G.; WENNEBERG, S. R.; LEVITSKY, D. K; MANDARINO, J. V.; WAZIRI, R.; and SCHNEIDER, R. H. Altered cortisol response to stress after four months practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 18(2): 1541, 1992.

Improved Adaptation to Stress: Reduced Cortisol Levels in Non-Stressful Situations and Enhanced Cortisol Response During Stressful Challenge with Rapid Return to Baseline.

438. LÖLIGER, S. A. Relationship between subjective bliss, 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid and the collective practice of Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Summary of Doctoral Dissertation, Maharishi International University, U.S.A. Dissertation Abstracts International 52(1): 551, 1990.

Increased Serotonin Turnover and Subjective Experience of Bliss during Meditation and in Daily Activity Correlated with the Size of a Group of TM-Sidhi Participants.

439. MACLEAN, C. R. K.; WALTON, K. G.; WENNEBERG, S. R.; LEVITSKY, D. K.; MANDARINO, J. V.; WAZIRI, R.; and SCHNEIDER, R. H. Altered responses of cortisol, GH, TSH, and testosterone to acute stress after four months' practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM). Presented at the New York Academy of Sciences meeting on Brain Corticosteroid Receptors: Studies on the Mechanism, Function, and Neurotoxicity of Corticosteroid Action, Arlington, VA, March 2-5, 1994.

More Adaptive Biochemical Response to Stress: Decreased Baseline Cortisol and Decreased Overall Cortisol During Stress Session; Decreased TSH Response to Stress; Increased GH Response to Stress; Increased Testosterone Response to Stress.

440. INFANTE, J. R.; SAMANIEGO, F.; MARTINEZ, M.; ROLDAN, A.; HORTAS, M.; LOPEZ, E.; CASTEJON, J.; POYATOS, R.; PERAN, F.; and GARRIDO, F. Circadian rhythm alteration by a mental technique for stress reduction. European Journal of Endocrinology (formerly Acta Endocrinologica) Supplement 2, Vol. 130, Oslo, Norway, 1994.

Biochemical Indications of Decreased Stress (Lower Levels of ACTH; Beta-Endorphin; CD4 Lymphocytes; and Higher Levels of Natural Killer Cells, Implying Increased Protection from Cancer).

B: Electrophysiological and Electroencephalographic Changes

441. LYUBIMOV, N. N. Mobilization of the hidden reserves of the brain. Program Abstracts of the 2nd Russian-Swedish Symposium "New Research in Neurobiology," Brain Research Institute, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, May 19-21, 1992.

Mobilization of the Hidden Reserves of the Brain: Wider Distribution of the Brain's Response to Sensory Input.

442. ORLOVA, T. V.; PETRENKO, E. V.; and LYUBIMOV, N. N. Cerebral control of afferent somatosensory projections. Presented at the International Symposium of Macro and Microlevels of Brain Organization in the Norm and Pathology, Moscow, 1992.

Increased Amplitude of Cortical and Brain Stem Responses to Somatosensory Stimuli.

443. SPLITTSTOESSER, W. EEG analysis during meditation: A literature review and experimental study (Original title: Elektroencephalographische Untersuchung bei der Meditation: Literatur und eigene Erfahrung). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany, 1983.

EEG Indications of Restful Alertness: Coexistence of High and Low Amplitude Theta Activity with Alpha Activity; Occurrence of Delta Waves with Occasional Overlap by Fast Frequencies; High Amplitude Theta Activity Alternating with Alpha Activity; Increased Intrahemispheric Coherence in the Alpha and Theta Frequency Bands.

444. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W., and GELDERLOOS, P. Topographic EEG brain mapping during Yogic Flying. International Journal of Neuroscience 38, 427-434, 1988.

Stabilized Restful Alertness: Alpha Activity During Yogic Flying.

445. TRAVIS, F. T. An empirical test of Maharishi's junction point model of states of consciousness. Modern Science and Vedic Science 4(1): 43-56, 1990.

Indication of Pure Consciousness at the Transition between Waking, Sleeping, and Dreaming: Spreading and Increased Duration of Alpha Activity to the Frontal Cortex.

446. CRANSON, R.; GODDARD, P.; ORME-JOHNSON, D.; and SCHUSTER, D. P300 under conditions of temporal uncertainty and filter attenuation: Reduced latency in long-term practitioners of TM. Supplement to Psychophysiology 27:4A, August 1990.

Faster Neurocognitive Processing.

447. TRAVIS, F. T., and ORME-JOHNSON, D. W. EEG coherence and power during yogic flying. International Journal of Neuroscience 54: 1-12, 1990.

Increased EEG Coherence and Power during Yogic Flying.

448. TRAVIS, F. T. Eyes open and TM EEG patterns after one and eight years of TM practice. Psychophysiology 28(3a): S58, (Abstract), 1991.

Higher Baseline Alpha EEG Coherence in Long-Term Meditators.

449. GODDARD, P. H. Transcendental Meditation as an intervention in the aging of Neurocognitive Function: Reduced Age-Related Declines of P300 Latencies in elderly practitioners. Summary of Doctoral Dissertation, Maharishi International University, U.S.A. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (6): 3189B, 1992.

Preservation of Neurocognitive Processing Speed with Age.

450. MISKOV, S. Endogenous evoked potential in subjects practicing Transcendental Meditation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology of the Clinics for Neurology, Psychiatry, Alcoholism and Other Abuses of the Clinical Hospital "Sestre Milosrdnice," Zagreb University, Zagreb, Croatia, 1992.

Increased Efficiency and Decreased Age-Related Deterioration of Cognitive Information Processing as Measured by Event-Related Potentials.

451. TRAVIS, F. T. The junction point model: A field model of waking, sleeping, and dreaming, relating dream witnessing, the waking/sleeping transition, and Transcendental Meditation in terms of a common psychophysiologic state. Dreaming 4(2): 91-104, 1994.

Indication of Pure Consciousness at the Transition Between Waking, Sleeping, and Dreaming: Increased Alpha Activity.

452. TRAVIS, F. and MISKOV, S. P300 latency and amplitude during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation practice. Psychophysiology 31:S67, (Abstract), 1994.

Improved Efficiency of Information Transfer in the Brain: Shorter Latencies of Auditory Evoked Potentials (P300).

C: Health

453. ALEXANDER, C. N.; LANGER, E. J.; NEWMAN, R. I. ; CHANDLER, H. M.; and DAVIES, J. L. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: an experimental study with the elderly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57(6): 950-964, 1989.

Benefits for the Elderly Demonstrating Reversal of Aging: Increased Longevity (Higher Survival Rate); Reduction of Systolic Blood Pressure to More Ideal Levels; Improved Mental Health (Improvements on Nurses' Mental Health Ratings); Increased Cognitive Flexibility (Less Premature Cognitive Commitment, Increased Learning Ability on Associate Learning and Greater Perceptual Flexibility); Increased Word Fluency; Improvements in Self-Reported Measures of Behavioral Flexibility and Aging (Greater Ability to Cope with Inconvenience, Reduced Feelings of Being Old, Less Impatience with Others); Greater Sense of Well-Being (Feeling Better During the TM Program, High Interest in the TM Program and High Ratings of the Value of the TM Program; Feeling Better and More Relaxed After the TM Program).

454. SCHNEIDER, R. H.; ALEXANDER, C. N.; and WALLACE, R. K. In search of an optimal behavioral treatment for hypertension: A review and focus on Transcendental Meditation. In Personality, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Essential Hypertension., eds. E. H. Johnson, W. D. Gentry, and S. Julius, pp. 291-316. Washington, D. C. : Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1992.

Reduction of High Blood Pressure.

455. BLASDELL, K. S. Acute immunoreactivity, Transcendental Meditation, and Type A/B behavior. Abstract of Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Physiological and Biological Sciences, Maharishi International University, U.S.A. Dissertation Abstracts International 50(10): 4806B, 1990.

Improved Immune Response to Stress.

456. HARATANI, T., and HENMI, T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the mental health of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health 32(7): 346, 1990.

Improvements in General Physical and Mental Well-Being in Industrial Workers:

Decreased Physical Complaints; Decreased Impulsive Tendency; Reduced Emotional Instability; and Decreased Neurotic Tendency.

457. HARATANI, T., and HENMI, T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the health behavior of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Public Health 37 (10): 729, 1990.

Improved Sleep and Decreased Smoking in Industrial Workers: Decreased Time to Fall Asleep; Reduced Waking During the Night; Decreased Smoking; Fewer Cigarettes Smoked per Day.

458. HERRON, R. E. The Impact of Transcendental Meditation practice on medical expenditures. Summary of Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Management, Maharishi International University, U.S.A. Dissertation Abstracts International 53(12):4219A, 1993.

Decreased Medical Care Expenditures; Greatest Savings for Elderly and High Cost People.

459. WENNEBERG, S. R.; SCHNEIDER, R. H.; MACLEAN, C. R. K.; LEVITSKY, D. K.; WALTON, K. G.; MANDARINO, J.; and WAZIRI, R. The effect of Transcendental Meditation on ambulatory blood pressure and cardiovascular reactivity. Presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society, Boston, MA, April 13-16, 1994.

More Ideal Levels of Blood Pressure in Normotensive Subjects: Decreased Mean Diastolic Ambulatory Blood Pressure.

460. SCHNEIDER, R. H.; NIDICH, S.; SHARMA, H.; ROBINSON, C.; FOSTER, G.; NIDICH, R.; GOODMAN, R.; and ALEXANDER, C. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on lipid peroxide levels in community-dwelling older adults. Presented at the Third International Congress of Behavioral Medicine, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-9 July 1994.

Prevention of Disease: Lower Levels of Free-Radicals in the Elderly.


A: Intelligence, Learning, and Academic Performance

461. CRANSON, R. W.; ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; GACKENBACH, J.; DILLBECK, M. C.; JONES, C. H.; and ALEXANDER, C. N. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences 12(10): 1105-1116, 1991.

Improvements in General Intelligence Measured by Psychometric Tests and Choice Reaction Time.

462. HEINSTEDT, E. Divergent production: An "intuitive" cognitive style. Licentiate Dissertation, Lund University, Sweden, 1990.

Decreased Arousal; Broad Attention; Increased Perceptual and Conceptual Flexibility.

463. FERGUSSON, L. C. Field independence and art achievement in meditating and nonmeditating college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills 75: 1171-1175, 1992.

Field Independence Correlated to College Art Achievement; Higher Field Independence.

464. FERGUSSON, L. C. Field independence, Transcendental Meditation and achievement in college art: A reexamination. Perceptual and Motor Skills 77:1104-1106, 1993.

Growth of a Stable Internal Frame of Reference: Higher Level of Field Independence; Correlation of Field Independence with Grade-Point Average and Art Achievement.

465. SO KAM-TIM. Testing and Improving Intelligence and Creativity in the Chinese Culture with Maharishi's Vedic Psychology: Toward a Holistic & Universal Assessment. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Psychology, Maharishi International University, 1995.

Increased Creativity (Increased Ability to Interpret and Associate Freely, Increased Productive Imagination); Increased Fluid Intelligence (Increased Ability to Perceive Complex Relations, More Effective Use of Short Term Memory, Improved Ability to Reason Abstractly); Decreased Inspection Time (Increased Speed of Information Processing, Decreased Noise in the Information Processing System, Increased Focus); Increased Field Independence (Greater Ability to Differentiate Experience, Greater Cognitive Clarity, Broad Comprehension and Improved Ability to Focus); Increased Constructive Thinking (Improved Emotional Coping, Improved Behavioral Coping, Improvements on Categorical Thinking--Increased Flexibility of Attitude and Increased Tolerance of Others); Decreased State and Trait Anxiety.

B: Development of Personality

466. ALEXANDER, C. N.; RAINFORTH, M. V.; and GELDERLOOS, P. Transcendental Meditation, self-actualization, and psychological health: A conceptual overview and statistical meta-analysis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6(5), 189-247, 1991.

Most Effective Means of Increasing Self-Actualization.

467. CHANDLER, H. M. Transcendental meditation and awakening wisdom: A 10-year longitudinal study of self-development (meditation). Dissertation Abstracts International 51(10): 5048B, 1990.

Growth of Wisdom: Increased Ego Development--Improved Affective Functioning and Cognitive Development.

468. AHLSTROM, H. H. Transcendental Meditation, adaptation mechanisms and valuations. Doctoral dissertation, Maharishi International University, 1991.

Increased Psychological Health and Orientation Towards Positive Values.

469. ALEXANDER, C. N.; HEATON, D. P.; and CHANDLER, H. M. Advanced human development in the Vedic Psychology of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: Theory and research. In Transcendence and Mature Thought in Adulthood, eds. M. E. Miller and S. R. Cook-Greuter, pp. 39-70. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1994.

This paper presents subjective experiences, theory, and research on Maharishi's Seven States of Consciousness. It provides a conceptual model showing how the higher states of consciousness in Maharishi's Vedic Psychology extend beyond the developmental stages of modern psychology and meet all the criteria of advanced development.


A: Rehabilitation: Drugs and Alcohol

470. ALEXANDER, C. N.; ROBINSON, P.; and RAINFORTH, M. Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 13-87, 1994.

Meta-analysis of 198 Studies: the Transcendental Meditation program is Uniquely Effective for Treatment and Prevention of Drug, Alcohol, and Cigarette Abuse.

471. ROYER, A. The role of the Transcendental Meditation technique in promoting smoking cessation: A longitudinal study. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 219-236, 1994.

Increased Smoking Quit Rate Over a Two-Year Period.

B: Rehabilitation: Prisons -- Case Histories

472 ANKLESARIA, F., and KING, M. S. The nation-wide implementation of Maharishi's integrated system of rehabilitation in Senegal--A case study. In Scientific Research on Maharishi's Integrated System of Rehabilitation, eds. F. Anklesaria and M. S. King. Fairfield IA: MIU Press, 1993.

Almost Complete Cessation of Fights Between Inmates, Very Sharp Reduction in Irritability and Aggressiveness; Improvement in Health; Decrease in the Number of Medical Consultations--as much as 70-80%; Marked Decrease in Drug Consumption; Improvement in Sleep; Reduced National Recidivism.

C: Productivity and Quality of Life

473. Implementation of the Transcendental Meditation program for Brazilian army officers and cadets. Official Report No. 271-A/2/DEP, National Academy of Officers, Ministry of the Army, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 29 December 1991.

Increased Capacity of Attention; Improved Memory of Details; Increased Ability to Carry out Orders; Increased Physical Strength; Reduced Baseline Heart Rate.

474. ANKLESARIA, F., and KING, M. S. Developing the full potential of police officers: Maharishi's integrated system of rehabilitation in the Brazilian military police forces. In Scientific Research on Maharishi's Integrated System of Rehabilitation, eds. F. Anklesaria and M. S. King. Fairfield IA: MIU Press, 1993.

Improved Health, Decreased Disciplinary Problems and an Improved Public Image.

475. ALEXANDER, C. N.; SWANSON, G. C.; RAINFORTH, M. V.; CARLISLE, T. W.; TODD, C. C.; and OATES, R. M. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: A prospective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress and Coping: An International Journal 6: 245-262, 1993.

Reduced Anxiety, Insomnia, Fatigue, Cigarette and Hard Liquor Use; Improved Health, Employee Effectiveness, Job Satisfaction, and Job Relationships.

476. BROOME, V. J. Relationship between participation in Transcendental Meditation and the functionality of marriage. Masters thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1989.

Improved Marital Functionality (Overall Positive Couple Agreement, Marital Satisfaction, Personality Issues, Communication, Marital Cohesion and Marital Adaptability.)


The Following Papers in This Section Document the Growth of Coherence in the Collective Consciousness of States, Nations and the World.

477. ASSIMAKIS, P. D., and DILLBECK, M. C. Time series analysis of improved quality of life in Canada: Social change, collective consciousness, and the TM-Sidhi program. Psychological Reports 1995 (In press).

Improved Quality of National Life: Improvements on a Weekly Index Including Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, and Suicide (Canada, 1983-1985); Improvements on a Monthly Index Including Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, Suicide, Cigarette Consumption, and Worker-Days Lost in Strikes (Canada, 1972-1986).

478. GELDERLOOS, P.; CAVANAUGH, K. L.; and DAVIES, J. L. (1990). The dynamics of US-Soviet relations, 1979-1986: Effects of reducing social stress through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. In Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Social Statistics Section, Alexandria, VA.

Improved U.S.A.--Soviet Relations: Improved U.S.A. Statements and Actions Towards the U.S.S.R. and Improved U.S.S.R. Statements and Actions Towards the U.S.A. (U.S.A. and U.S.S.R., 1979-1986).

479. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; ALEXANDER, C. N.; and DAVIES, J. L. The effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field: Reply to a methodological critique. Journal of Conflict Resolution 34(2): 756-768, 1990.

Strong Replication of Original Research Methodology.

480. REEKS, D. L. Improved quality of life in Iowa through the Maharishi Effect. Abstract of Doctoral Dissertation, Maharishi International University, U.S.A. Dissertation Abstracts International 51(12), 1991.

Reduced Unemployment, Traffic Fatalities, and Crime Rate (Iowa, 1979-1986).

481. HATCHARD, G. D.; DEANS, A. J.; CAVANAUGH, K. L.; and ORME-JOHNSON, D. W. The Maharishi Effect: A model for social improvement: Time series analysis of a phase transition to reduced crime in Merseyside metropolitan area. Psychology, Crime, and Law (1995, in press). Also presented by invitation to the Annual Conference of the British Psychological Society on Criminal and Legal Psychology, 1-3 March, 1993, Harrogate, England.

Decreased Crime Rate (Merseyside, England, 1988-1991).

482. HAGELIN, J. S.; ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; RAINFORTH, M.; CAVANAUGH, K.; and ALEXANDER, C. N. Results of the national demonstration project to reduce violent crime and improve governmental effectiveness in Washington, D. C. Institute of Science, Technology and Public Policy Technical Report 94:1, 1994.

Decreased Violent Crime Rate (Washington, D.C., June and July, 1993); Increased Popular Support for U.S. President.


A: Physiology

483. JEVNING, R.; WALLACE, R. K.; and BEIDEBACH, M. The physiology of meditation: A review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 16: 415-424, 1992.

Based upon a wide spectrum of physiological data on TM made available by previous research, the authors hypothesize that meditation is an integrated response with peripheral circulatory and metabolic changes subserving increased central nervous activity, and discuss probable objective markers of clear experience of samadhi or pure consciousness as the subjectively identifiable goal of meditation.

484. WALLACE, R. K. The physiology of higher states of consciousness. Paper presented at the Conference on Higher States of Consciousness: Theoretical and experimental perspectives, Chicago, August, 1991.

The author delineates the empirically measurable physiological correlates of higher states of consciousness.

485. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W. Transcendental Meditation as a technique to increase neural, cognitive and behavioral plasticity. Proceedings of the Conference on Restorative Neurophysiology, Irkutsk, Russia, August 1992.

The author reviews research in support of the hypothesis that regular practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique increases the flexibility of the nervous system and improves general adaptive ability.

486. WALTON, K. G., and LEVITSKY, D. A neuroendocrine mechanism for the reduction of drug use and addictions by Transcendental Meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 89-117, 1994.

Neurochemical Substrate of Chronic Stress and its Contribution to the Development of Drug Addiction. Explains how the Transcendental Meditation program Normalizes Physiological Imbalances Involved in Addiction; Improved Balance and Well-Being.

487. ALEXANDER, C. N.; ROBINSON, P.; ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; SCHNEIDER, R. H.; and WALTON, K. G. The effects of Transcendental Meditation compared to other methods of relaxation in reducing risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Homeostasis 35: 4/5, 243-263, 1994.

This paper reviews four meta-analyses, which show the superiority of Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program compared to other relaxation and meditation techniques in producing deep rest, decreasing anxiety, increasing self-actualization, and decreasing substance abuse (cigarettes, drugs, alcohol). It also reviews individual well-controlled studies which support the conclusion of the meta-analyses. In addition, it provides a theoretical mechanism of the effects of Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program in terms of normalization of the biochemical effects of stress.

B: Education

488. JONES, C. H. The impact of Maharishi's Vedic Science based education in higher education: The example of Maharishi International University. Modern Science and Vedic Science 3(2): 155-199, 1989.

The author suggests that holistic development of students occurs as a result of implementing the technologies of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Vedic Science such as the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program, and teaching techniques based on the principles of Maharishi's Vedic Science.

489. DOW, M. A. Preparing the student to succeed at calculus. Modern Science and Vedic Science 6 (1): 1994.

The author suggests that learning calculus involves three aspects: knower, known, and process of knowing. Today's calculus reform deals admirably with the last two aspects but leaves the development of the student's full mental capacity, the knower, largely to chance. The practice of Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation technique at MIU develops the knower and thereby gives at least two distinct advantages: a relaxed, alert mind and an experiential framework for feeling at home with the limit process.

C: Maharishi's Vedic Science: Physics

490. HAGELIN, J. S. The physics of immortality. Paper presented at Isthmus Institute Conference, Dallas, TX, April, 1991.

The author suggests that physiological growth towards immortality is possible when experience of the unified field of all the laws of nature is maintained.

D: Maharishi's Vedic Psychology

491. DILLBECK, M. C., and ALEXANDER, C. N. Higher states of consciousness: Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Vedic Psychology of human development. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 10(4): 307-334, 1989.

The authors suggest that adult development to higher states of consciousness beyond the experience of waking, dreaming and sleeping results from growth of maintenance of the experience of the Self.

492. DILLBECK, M. C. The concept of self in the Bhagavad-Gita and in the Vedic Psychology of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: A further note on testability. Psychologia--An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 33: 50-56, 1990.

This paper points out that in the Bhagavad-Gita the subjective experience of transcendental or pure consciousness ("Self") is described as having effects that have been measured through extensive scientific research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation program.

493. GELDERLOOS, P. Maharishi's Vedic Psychology: Alleviate suffering by enlivening bliss--reconnect the partial values of life with the wholeness of life. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Meditation, Psychotherapy, and Health, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, 16-18 March 1990.

This paper explains how Maharishi's Vedic Psychology is the fulfillment of psychotherapy and reviews scientific research indicating that Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program improve individual and collective physical and mental health.

494. DILLBECK, M. C. The Bhagavad-Gita: A case study in Maharishi's Vedic Psychology. Modern Science and Vedic Science 4(2), 96-134, 1991.

The author analyzes the Bhagavad-Gita as a model case study from the Vedic literature providing knowledge of the full range of human development from ignorance to enlightenment.

495. ALEXANDER, C. N. Transcendental Meditation. In Encyclopedia of Psychology (2nd edition), ed. R. J. Corsini, pp. 545-46. New York: Wiley Interscience, 1994.

The author presents a basic introduction to Transcendental Meditation and the scientific research on it.

E. Business and Industry

496. ALEXANDER, C. N.; HEATON, D. P.; and CHANDLER, H. M. Promoting adult psychological development: Implications for management education. Proceedings of the Association of Management, Human Resource Management 2, 133-137, Orlando, Florida, August 1990.

Promotion of Psychological Development (Ego Development, Field Independence and Intelligence).

497. GUSTAVSSON, B., and HARUNG, H. S. Organizational learning based on transforming collective consciousness. The Learning Organization 1: 33-40, 1994.

The authors suggest that the level of development of consciousness is primary in determining continuous learning of an individual and the organization.

498. SCHMIDT-WILK, J. Developing consciousness in organizations: The Transcendental Meditation program in business. Journal of Business and Psychology 10 (4): 1995 (in press).

A review of research on the application of Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation program in the workplace indicates: improved employee health; increased job and life satisfaction; improved job performance and productivity; increased job stability; and improved interpersonal relations. These results are discussed from a model of developing consciousness of the individual and developing corporate consciousness.

F: Rehabilitation: Drugs and Alcohol

499. GELDERLOOS, P.; WALTON, K. G.; ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; and ALEXANDER, C. N. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in preventing and treating substance misuse: A review. International Journal of the Addictions 26: 293-325, 1991.

The authors review research indicating decreased substance abuse among students, chronic users, and prison inmates.

500. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W. Transcendental Meditation as an epidemiological approach to drug and alcohol abuse: Theory, research, and financial impact evaluation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 119-168, 1994.

The author focuses on the contributions of the Transcendental Meditation program to resolving broader social problems associated with addiction. He proposes that drug and alcohol abuse are symptoms of a general stress-addiction-crime epidemic in society. He then reviews impressive sociological research findings showing how societal disorder--experienced as crime, drug abuse, political conflict, and economic instability--can be substantially reduced through the cost effective programs of Transcendental Meditation and Maharishi Ayur-Veda.

G: Rehabilitation: Prisons

501. KING, M. S. The theoretical foundations and practical validation of Maharishi's integrated system of rehabilitation. In Scientific Research on Maharishi's Integrated System of Rehabilitation, eds. F. Anklesaria and M. S. King. Fairfield, IA: MIU Press, 1993.

This paper outlines the theoretical foundations of Maharishi's Integrated System of Rehabilitation. It shows how this theory of rehabilitation is validated by extensive scientific research and by personal experience of meditating offenders. The author suggests that this system of rehabilitation offers a solution to key problems within the field of rehabilitation, including recidivism, the measurement of rehabilitation, and the means of rehabilitation.

502. KIMBLE, C. J. Transcendental Meditation in the youth authority. Youth Authority Quarterly 28, 1975.

Benefits experienced by Meditating Wards of the Youth Authority in California.

H: Maharishi Effect: World Peace

503. CAVANAUGH, K. L.; KING, K. D.; and TITUS, B. D. Improving the national economy through alliance with nature's government: Effects of the group practice of Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Modern Science and Vedic Science 4(1): 3-41, 1990.

Improved National Economy: Decreased Index of Inflation and Unemployment.

504. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W. Introduction to the proceedings of the conference on approaches to creating a stable world peace. Modern Science and Vedic Science 5(1-2): 1-30, 1992.

This paper is an introduction to a peace conference held at MIU, which summarizes the presentations of the conference participants and presents an overview of Maharishi's approach to world peace.

505. HAGELIN, J. S. Achieving world peace through a new science and technology. Modern Science and Vedic Science 5(1-2): 48-75, 1992.

This paper examines scientific evidence for a new technology of world peace based on the unified field of natural law and considers its practical utilization through extended field effects of consciousness.

506. ALEXANDER, C. N. Peaceful body, peaceful mind, peaceful world. Modern Science and Vedic Science 5(1-2): 150-164, 1992.

This paper outlines the development of peace within the individual and explains how this development forms the basis of creating peace in the world.

507. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W. Theory and research on conflict resolution through the Maharishi Effect. Modern Science and Vedic Science 5(1-2): 76-98, 1992.

This paper presents the Maharishi Effect as the basis for a practical program to create world peace and describes scientific research demonstrating the effectiveness of this program in generating coherence and peace on all levels of collective life.

508. MORRIS, B. Maharishi's Vedic Science and Technology: The only means to create world peace. Modern Science and Vedic Science 5(1-2): 199-207, 1992.

This paper analyzes the mechanics through which the experience of transcendental consciousness creates peace in both individual and collective consciousness. The paper also emphasizes the urgency of establishing groups of world peace professionals to create peace for the world.