Author's Note

Introduction

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

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A P P E N D I X B

Selected References on the Scientific Research on Transcendental Meditation

More than 500 research studies have been conducted on Transcendental Meditation by over 300 research scientists in 210 independent universities and research institutions in 33 countries during the past 25 years. The following are references for 82 selected research studies, all published in leading, peer-reviewed scientific journals.

These and other research papers have been compiled in Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program, Collected Papers, Vols. 1-6 (4,400 pages). Reprints of individual research papers, as well as volumes of the Collected Papers, are available from the Institute of Science, Technology, and Public Policy at Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa 52557.


PHYSIOLOGY
Metabolic, Biochemical,
and Cardiovascular Changes

Physiological effects of Transcendental Meditation. Science 167: 1751-1754, 1970.

A wakeful hypometabolic physiologic state. American Journal of Physiology 221: 795-799, 1971.

The physiology of meditation. Scientific American 226: 84-90, 1972.

Autonomic stability and Transcendental Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine 35: 341-349, 1973.

Adrenocortical activity during meditation. Hormones and Behavior 10(1): 54-60, 1978.

The Transcendental Meditation technique, adrenocortical activity, and implications for stress. Experientia 34: 618-619, 1978.

Redistribution of blood flow in acute hypometabolic behavior. American Journal of Physiology 235(1): R89-R92, 1978.

Sympathetic activity and Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Neural Transmission 44: 117-135, 1979.

Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1: 73-88, 1980.

Effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on normal and Jendrassik reflex time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 50: 1103-1106, 1980.

Muscle and skin blood flow and metabolism during states of decreased activation. Physiology and Behavior 29(2): 343-348, 1982.

Breath suspension during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Psychosomatic Medicine 44(2): 133-153, 1982.

Electrophysiologic characteristics of respiratory suspension periods occurring during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 46(3): 267-276, 1984.

Hormonal control in a state of decreased activation: Potentiation of arginine vasopressin secretion. Physiology and Behavior 35: 591-595, 1985.

Long-term endocrinologic changes in subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program. Psychosomatic Medicine 48(1/2): 59-65, 1986.

Physiological differences between Transcendental Meditation and rest. American Psychologist 42: 879-881, 1987.

The physiology of meditation: A review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 16: 415-424, 1992.

A neuroendocrine mechanism for the reduction of drug use and addictions by Transcendental Meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 89-117, 1994.

Electrophysiological and
Electroencephalographic Changes

Spectral analysis of the EEG in meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 35: 143-151, 1973.

EEG analysis of spontaneous and induced states of consciousness. Revue d'électroencéphalographie et de neurophysiologie clinique 4: 445-453, 1974.

Theta bursts: An EEG pattern in normal subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 42: 397-405, 1977.

Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 14: 147-151, 1981.

EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM-Sidhi experiences. International Journal of Neuroscience 13: 211-217, 1981.

Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi Program. International Journal of Neuroscience 15: 151-157, 1981.

Participation in the Transcendental Meditation program and frontal EEG coherence during concept learning. International Journal of Neuroscience 29: 45-55, 1986.

Topographic EEG brain mapping during "Yogic Flying." International Journal of Neuroscience 38: 427-434, 1988.

Field model of consciousness: EEG coherence changes as indicators of field effects. International Journal of Neuroscience 54:1-12, 1990.

EEG Coherence and Power during Yogic Flying. International Journal of Neuroscience 54:1-12, 1990.

Health

Effect of Transcendental Meditation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Journal of the Israel Medical Association 95(1): 1-2, 1978.

Transcendental Meditation in the management of hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Human Stress 5(4): 24-27, 1979.

Systolic blood pressure and long-term practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Effects of TM on systolic blood pressure. Psychosomatic Medicine 45(1): 41-46, 1983.

Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development 64: 212-215, 1985.

Medical care utilization and the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 49(1): 493-507, 1987.

Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: An experimental study with the elderly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57: 950-964, 1989.

Stress management in elderly blacks with hypertension. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Race, Ethnicity, and Health: Challenges in Diabetes and Hypertension, Salvador, Brazil, July 1991.

In search of an optimal behavioral treatment for hypertension. Personality, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Essential Hypertension, Johnson, E.H.; Gentry, W.D.; and Julius, S. (eds.). Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 291-312, 1992.

Aging

The effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program on the aging process. International Journal of Neuroscience 16: 53-58, 1982.

Elevated serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in older practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 15(4): 327-341, 1992.

PYSCHOLOGY
Creativity, Intelligence, Perception,
Learning Ability, and Academic Performance

Influence of Transcendental Meditation upon auto-kinetic perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 1031-1034, 1974.

Increased intelligence and reduced neuroticism through the Transcendental Meditation program. Findings previously published as "Meditation, neuroticism and intelligence: A follow-up" in Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie (Behavior: Journal of Psychology) 3: 167-182, 1975.

Transcendental Meditation vs. pseudo-meditation on visual choice reaction time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 46: 726, 1978.

Creative thinking and the Transcendental Meditation technique. A version printed in The Journal of Creative Behavior 13(3): 169-180, 1979.

The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum: A 4-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning. College Student Journal 15(2): 140-146, 1981.

Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem-solving. Memory and Cognition 10(3): 207-215, 1982.

Longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program on cognitive ability and cognitive style. Perceptual and Motor Skills 62: 731-738, 1986.

School effectiveness: Achievement gains at the Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment. Education 107: 49-54, 1986.

Field independence of students at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment and a Montessori school. Perceptual and Motor Skills 65: 613-614, 1987.

Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences 12: 1105-1116, 1991.

Field independence and art achievement in meditating and nonmeditating college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills 75: 1171-1175, 1992.

Development of Personality

Influence of Transcendental Meditation on a measure of self-actualization. Journal of Counseling Psychology 19: 184-187, 1972.

Psychological research on the effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on a number of personality variables. Findings previously published in Begripsvaliditeit van de NPV-Zelfwaarde-Ringsschaal. Heymans Bulletins, Psychologische lnstituten R.U., Groningen, the Netherlands, NR: HB-74-147 Ex. See also Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie (Behavior: Journal of Psychology) 4: 206-218, 1976.

Transcendental Meditation and social psychological attitudes. The Journal of Psychology 99: 121-127, 1978.

Effects of Transcendental Meditation on self-identity indices and personality. British Journal of Psychology 73: 57-68, 1982.

Kohlbergian cosmic perspective responses, EEG coherence, and the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program. Journal of Moral Education 12(3): 166-173, 1983.

Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology 45(6): 957-974, 1989.

Higher states of consciousness: Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Vedic Psychology of Human Development. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 10: 307-334, 1989.

Higher Stages of Human Development: Perspectives on Adult Growth. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Transcendental Meditation, self actualization, and psychological health: A conceptual overview and statistical meta-analysis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6(5): 189-247, 1991.

Transcendental Meditation. Encyclopedia of Psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley Interscience, 1993.

SOCIOLOGY
Business and Productivity

Transcendental Meditation and productivity. Academy of Management Journal 17: 362-368, 1974.

Effects of Transcendental Meditation on health behavior of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Public Health 37(10): 729, 1990.

Effects of Transcendental Meditation on mental health of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health 32(7): 177, 1990.

The effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: A perspective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress and Coping: International Journal 6: 245-262, 1993.

Rehabilitation --
Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Abuse

The Transcendental Meditation program's effect on addictive behavior. Addictive Behaviors 5: 3-12, 1980.

The patterns of reduction of drug and alcohol use among Transcendental Meditation participants. Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 2(1): 28-33, 1983.

The use of the Transcendental Meditation program in the prevention of drug abuse and in the treatment of drug-addicted persons. Bulletin on Narcotics 40(1): 51-56, 1988.

Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in preventing and treating substance misuse: A review. International Journal of the Addictions 26: 293-325, 1991.

Self-Recovery: Treating Addictions Using Transcendental Meditation and Maharishi Ayur-Veda. New York: Haworth, 1993.

Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 13-87, 1994.

The role of Transcendental Meditation technique in promoting smoking cessation: A longitudinal study. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 219-236, 1994.

Rehabilitation -- Prisons

The Transcendental Meditation program and rehabilitation at Folsom State Prison: A cross-validation study. Criminal Justice and Behavior 5 (1): 3-20, 1978.

The application of the Transcendental Meditation program to correction. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 11(1): 111-132, 1987.

The Transcendental Meditation program and criminal recidivism in California. Journal of Criminal Justice 15: 211-230, 1987.

Family Life

Transcendental Meditation program and marital adjustment. Psychological Reports 51: 887-890, 1982.

Collective Consciousness

Change in the quality of life in Canada: Intervention studies of the effect of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program. Psychological Reports (in press).

The Transcendental Meditation program and crime rate change in a sample of forty-eight cities. Journal of Crime and Justice 4: 25-45, 1981.

Consciousness as a field: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program and changes in social indicators. Journal of Mind and Behavior 8(1): 67-104, 1987.

Test of a field model of consciousness and social change: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program and decreased urban crime. Journal of Mind and Behavior 9(4): 457-486, 1988.

International peace project in the Middle East: The effect of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field. Journal of Conflict Resolution 32(4): 776-812, 1988.

A multiple-input transfer function model of Okun's misery index: An empirical test of the Maharishi Effect. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, Washington, D.C., August 6-10, 1989. An abridged version of this paper appears in Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association), 1989.

Test of a field theory of consciousness and social change: Time series analysis of participation in the TM-Sidhi Program and reduction of violent death in the U.S. Social Indicators Research 22: 399-418, 1990.

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